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The Paper presented below had been written to study and subsequently build conceptual clarity with regard to the different aspects of a Networking Body. These aspects included its functions, formation, structure, members, funding pattern, strategies adopted and methods used, work and intervention area etc. Towards this end, Networking bodies operating in Mumbai were identified. But, due to time and resource constraint, it was decided to restrict the area of study to those Networks working in the area of child rights. Thus, a final list of five such networks was prepared. The list included the following:

·        Campaign Against Child Labour (CACL)

·        Forum Against Child Sexual Abuse (FACSE)

·        Quality Institutional Care and Alternatives for Children (QIC&AC)

·        Coordination Committee for Vulnerable Children (CCVC)

·        Childline India Foundation (CAF)

Due to lack of response from some of the above-mentioned Networks coupled with other unavoidable reasons, data could be gathered from only two of them, which were- QIC&AC and FACSE.

The paper includes a brief introduction about Networks and specifically those working in the social sector. Thereafter, it presents the two Case Studies about summed up by the Analysis and Conclusion part.   


Networking is a term that is difficult to define. Although it means different things to different people, in general, networking can be thought of as two or more people working together to achieve individual and group goals that would be more difficult to obtain individually. In general, networking is cooperating to compete.

A social network is a social structure between actors, mostly individuals or organizations. In its most simple form, a network in the social sector is a map of all of the relevant ties between the nodes being studied. Nodes constitute the individual actors within the netwroks, which may be NGOs, support groups, individuals, media group etc. and ties represent relationship between these actors.

Networks created for one purpose may be employed for another, which often might not be foreseen when the actors initially engaged in their relationships. In some situations, the same social structure can be beneficial for the attainment of one goal, while obstructing the attainment of others. For example, social networks can have the positive effect of providing network members with access to privileged resources, while lowering transaction costs. However, at the same time the social network may place high demands on members in these networks and restrict their individual behavior and opportunities.  

Networking brings with it innovative approaches of working. The true creativity of an NGO lies in creating networks of information, innovation and interaction that enables people to communicate, to share and to receive, effecting positive social change in the long run. Such networks would -

  • Bring people together locally and globally, and focus attention on key issues for discussion, deliberation and consensus.
  • Organize communication and information relevant to community’s needs and problems, in a prompt manner.
  • Require the involvement, support and participation of a broad base of citizens, including community activists, leaders, sponsors and other concerned individuals.
  • Include in its functioning, the concerns of low-income groups, women and minorities, who otherwise find it difficult to voice their problems and needs.

Such networks are highly consistent with the importance that is placed on grass-roots innovations that solve problems and satisfy needs of the local community, and instill/strengthen a sense of ownership and belonging to its members. Networks are therefore vibrant forces capable of building on the knowledge they have accumulated, and adapt to a rapidly changing world and community needs.  

The networks have to be self-sustaining and independent of external funding. It does not however necessitate the need of income generating activities to be taken up by the network as that may lead to deviation of network’s activities from its primary purpose, goal and objectives. The Network Body might have support from a Funding agency, which might also be in its Core group. The modalities of operation within the network need to be strong and open, thus incorporating the parameters of growth and scale in it. Information provided on these networks should add value to raw data widely available by filtering and structuring it and ensuring broad access to all potential users in a user-friendly environment. The significance of this can be understood by the fact that a strong and effective network is the bedrock of strong and effective participation. It is through such networks that communities and NGOs alike can voice their concern, learn from others and share their knowledge. More importantly, it allows for collective decision-making by inviting and incorporating comments and suggestions, as well as communicating decisions and policies to all users in a two-way flow. The effectiveness of networking approaches has been greatly enhanced by recent advances in information and communications technologies.

Reasons for forming and sustaining networks:

  • They provide a focus for issue in hand by acting as a catalyst for change, bringing together organizations that share a common concern.
  • For collective action for social justice and common causes- they often act as the main advocates for voicing out the issue on behalf of or with the target group.
  • The credibility and authority gained from the collective membership generally outweighs what individual member organizations can achieve.
  • They serve as a platform for focusing action by all interested parties and to express solidarity among NGOs. Helps to share experiences and expertise to work for common action programmes to create an impact on the policies of the government
  • They help in expanding the social circle of members, giving them access to persons who can be resourceful to their organizations.
  • They facilitate cross-pollination of practices and ideas from other organizations operating in the sector.
  • To share problems of development works and solve them. It also helps the groups to be better informed.
  • Essential for developmental activities which implies adoption of technologies, implementation of developmental activities and those which involve procedural implications
  • They bring together a range of expertise and experiences that are vital for taking the issue forward and advocating for it.
  • They also enhance the capacities of individual members through the sharing of knowledge, skills and experiences in the developmental activities/work undertaken by them.
  • They can provide protection for members, particularly for those organizations that might be vulnerable if challenged on their own.
  • The public presence and activities of the network raise awareness among the general public about the issue/problem being handled.
  • Networks can be a useful means for donors to channel funding to a range of organizations working towards a cause.

Stages in developing a framework of action

  • Forming vision and mission statements of the Network Body.
    • Vision- a wishful statement arising from the analysis of the issue being addressed.
    • Mission- a statement with following dimensions
      • Targets for change
      • Nature of change
      • Justification for network’s place and role.
  • Forming the strategy to be adopted by the Networking body. It should include the selected areas and methods of work in order to fulfill the mission.
  • Framing the Network’s Projects Activities keeping in mind its strategy and based on specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound objectives. For example- training programmes, campaigns, direct intervention activities, workshops etc.
  • Listing down the probable or expected outcomes and learning from the group’s activities and efforts. For example- The degree of impact on the target group, other expected or unexpected consequences, review and evaluation, basis for further planning and so on.
  • Implementation of the planned activities and events.
  • Monitoring and evaluation of the work done. Identifying the gaps and loopholes in the present strategies and style of functioning and taking necessary steps and measures to overcome them. 

All the Networks grow and progress with the combined and sustained efforts of their member organizations. A few of them form the Core Group and others remain at the periphery and continue to provide their help and support from there only. Role of the Core Group thus becomes very crucial and important for the survival and growth of the body. Networks with a weak or fragmented Core have never been able to achieve their target and goals. Therefore, maintaining and retaining the Core Group becomes very necessary.

And in turn, members in the Core Group bear the responsibility of retaining and building support from other organizations. Various ways can be employed to achieve this end, for example- distributing newsletters, pamphlets, organizing regular workshops and meetings to keep them updated about the work and proceedings of the Network.   

Networks and Coalitions often seek to influence their governments at a variety of levels, particularly to bring about legislative and policy reform and thus have a responsibility for the broader promotion.

Organizations have unique missions that lead them to play different roles in the network. These roles fall into three broad categories, each with its own set of optimal strategies and organizational structures. It is common for environmental groups to mix these sets of strategies today. But one of the primary tenets of this paper is that the movement as a whole becomes far stronger when organizations specialize in one of the following three strategies.

People Organizations define themselves by serving distinct audiences. Some focus on specific demographic segments, while others focus on geographically defined communities. These organizations come in two varieties: small grassroots organizers and large environmental brands. Their role in the network is to reach out to various segments of society and help them build appropriate connections with environmental causes. The keys to success for these organizations are carefully defining audiences and listening closely to their needs.  

Solution Organizations define themselves not only by the issue they focus on, but also by their particular approach of solving it. Some may solve problems with hands-on field research; some by playing watchdog to a particular government agency. The range of issues and solutions is incredibly varied which goes a long way toward explaining the incredible diversity of the environmental movement. Collectively, these organizations define the mission of the network by identifying the problems that need attention and by developing the broad range of approaches to solving them. Solution Organizations house the movement’s issue-related technical and policy expertise.  

Resource Organizations define themselves by the particular expertise or resources that they bring to the rest of the network. These organizations specialize in developing unique resources and expertise and in deploying these resources throughout the network to raise its collective effectiveness. Examples of expertise include fundraising, technology, campaign strategy, legal strategy or marketing and communications. Examples of resources include providing financial support and particular types of infrastructure such as meeting places or communications infrastructure.  

A Connected Network  

These different types of organizations can be combined to form powerful new network clusters:  

People Organizations and Solution Organizations have the potential to form powerful new networks, where solutions are aggregated for specific audiences, much like retailers aggregate products for specific customer segments. The organization would specialize in understanding what matters most to its audiences while pulling most, if not all, of its issue-specific expertise from Solution Organizations in its network. This collaboration could eventually lead to the aggregation of civic engagement opportunities, shifting fluidly from one campaign to another based on opportunity and audience interest.  

Solution-Coordinating Networks help organizations with different solutions collaborate and target their different approaches on a particular issue. Forest campaigns, for example, might connect one group’s legal strategies with others’ public outreach and land acquisition work in a coordinated push for protection in a particular area. These types of solution networks typically take the form of short-term collaborations and account for the bulk of multi-organization campaigns.  

Solution-Sharing Networks share knowledge and resources related to a particular solution to the various social problems. These networks tend to be geographically dispersed to minimize competition over resources. In some cases, the network is hub-like with the bulk of the expertise and innovation occurring in one centralized location. In others, the network is more peer-like with expertise shared in a more distributed fashion across organizations.  

Resource Organizations are already pulling together loose outsourcing networks in which they supply needed expertise and resources to a variety of organizations. Resource Organizations play a critical role in knitting the movement as a network. These organizations also need to be better networked to one another in order to provide clients with holistic and integrated services.  

Persistent Challenges faced by Networks:

· They are vulnerable to divisions, such as conflicts between members as a result of competition or lack of trust. Personality conflicts, especially in leadership can also weaken the network.

· There is always difficulty in sustaining the active interest and support of members. In many instances it happens as a result of member organizations not having an expressly defined commitment to the coalition or because of competing demands.

· Tensions may exist between the interests of individual members and that of the network body as a whole. If not managed well the two may come into conflict or at least not be compatible.

· Often due to worthwhile but competing demands coalition work is not always a top priority for some members. In such cases members are unable or less inclined to commit the necessary resources for the successful completion of tasks.

· Disparities in the size and influence of member organizations can also lead to tensions within the body. Larger members that actively participate generally have more resources and time to commit to the coalition, consequently their agenda become more dominant.

· Network often have difficulty in finding sources of funding.

· Coalitions are not immune to wider societal forces. Many a times, members’ external interests, e.g. political and religious association do affect the dynamics within the network in negative ways.  


The campaign on the QIC&AC was initiated by CRY on a National level in the year 2001 and is supported by SAATHI, Mumbai at the Maharashtra State level. It is an initiative in collaboration with the State Department of Women and Child Development. It is working in 13 states all over India .  

Vision Statement- A society where every child lives in a secure nurturing and just environment which upholds and values the rights of the child holistically thereby optimizing each child’s potential.  

Mission Statement- to ensure state responsibility and active civil society participation through a mass movement based advocacy for strengthening and building commitments towards child rights thereby making a visible difference in the lives of children in need of care and protection.  

Aim- to ensure quality care in residential institutions for children and to facilitate family-based and community based alternatives for social re-integration and de-institutionalization.  

The group had laid down its core values and guiding principles. Few of the core values were- Child participation, community ownership, partnership, democratic process, equal opportunity etc.  

The campaign began with intervention programs in institutions to ensure quality care and has moved on to building a mass movement towards child-centered advocacy. The campaign has moved on from demonstrating models in institutional care to strategizing towards monitoring the functioning of institutions, vigilance role with the govt. while continuing partnerships and building alliances towards prevention of institutionalization.  

Three fold strategy adopted

1.      Constructive developmental programmes for ensuring quality care, rehab of orphans n prevention of institutionalization

a.       Evolving and demonstrating quality parameters

                                                                 i.      Evolving guidelines

                                                               ii.      Documentation of best practices

                                                              iii.      Demonstrations of quality care through direct intervention in institutions and community development

                                                             iv.      Strengthening monitoring systems

                                                               v.      Training and capacity building

                                                             vi.      Alternatives for deinstitutionalisation and community reintegration  

b.      Rehabilitation

                                                                 i.      Training and capacity building

                                                               ii.      Support programmes for rehabilitation

                                                              iii.      Implementation of child care plan in every institution

                                                             iv.      Documentation of best practices

c.       Model district plan

                                                                 i.      Evolving strategies towards prevention of institutionalization

                                                               ii.      Working with Child Welfare Committee (CWC) and Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) and strengthening gate keeping practices

d.      Children’s participation

                                                                 i.      Through camps and setting children’s committees in various institutions

2.      Advocacy for policy change

a.       Working with the CWC, JJB, Comissionerate and the secretariat

b.      Legal advocacy through criminal complaints, litigations.

c.       Political lobbying: influencing policies through the elected representatives.

d.      Engaging with the media.

3.      Struggle based mass movement for social change.

a.       Broad basing to people’s organizations and mass movements.

b.      Mass-based advocacy through Bal Adalats, rallies, signature campaigns etc.

c.       Publications and wide information dissemination.

d.      Demonstration campaigns and rallies, vigilance groups/watchdog.  


  • Children- destitute, in the age group of 0-18 yrs.

Main members-

  • CRY
  • State Department of Women and Child Development
  • Bal Anand
  • Tata Institute of Social Sciences
  • Prerna
  • Family Service Centre
  • Balprafulta
  • Child India Foundation etc.

In the initial and formation phase of QIC&AC, its core group members took up the following activities:

  • Conducted a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis of the Maharashtra initiative initially, helps in strategizing future work, gives a direction to the efforts and work.
  • Also did assessment of the initiative at the National Level in relation to their strengths, constraints and challenges and available opportunities.
  • Laid down the strategies relevant to their work.

Tools and approaches to be used by it in order to achieve the goals are:

  • Data base building
  • Networking
  • Lobbying and advocacy
  • Direct Intervention
  • Training and capacity building
  • Children’s participation

Activities / Programmes

  • Direct intervention programmes
    • Training of trainers for probation officers and social workers in Mumbai to take on training programmes in life skill education.
    • Summer camps and bal mahotsavs
    • Demonstration of Model institutional Care, demo of children’s processes, rehab intervention programme.
    • Hamari awaz suno wall magazine with children in institutions.
    • Running mobile libraries to inculcate progressive values in children in institutions.
  • Research & documentation
    • A study on children in conflict with law and observation homes
    • Support to evaluation studies on Juvenile Justice Scheme.
    • Situational analysis of childcare institutions in the state of Maharashtra .
  • Advocacy
    • Supervision and Board Control as per the OCH Act 1960- working and assisting the Board of Control.
    • Worked with State Children’s Commission and Commissioner of the Department of Women and Child Welfare.
    • Interventions in abuse cases

The main tools used by QIC&AC for advocating the cause and issues raised by them were media and political advocacy.

The methods and processes used for planning and intervention were:

·        Brainstorming at the meetings on the issue.

·        Dialogue with the State for partnership.

·        Forming and sustaining a regional network of Government as well as Non-Government Organizations.

·        Launching a meeting for orientation.

·        Consultations

·        Capacity building programs- included JJ Act training programs for lawyers and judges; Care takers training programs and Life skills training programs.

·        Identifying key areas of concern and lobbying for the same.

The strategies used to achieve the above were:

  • Research and documentation- situational analysis, database building, process documentation, impact assessment of all existing programs.
  • Collaborative partnership with the state.
  • Issue based and program specific networking- Creating and strengthening children’s groups, forming pressure groups at state and national level, resource mobilization in relation to people and finances etc.
  • Training and capacity building including that of the core group.
  • Lobbying and advocacy- networking and influencing other networks working on child rights, government lobbying, evolving parameters for quality care, pressure groups, legal reforms, co-management, manifestoes to be influenced, media support, information exchange and communication and National accreditation. 
  • Mobilization of mass opinion.


The member organizations of QIC&AC had developed and proposed an administrative structure for its functioning but because it is still in its nascent stage, it has not been able to materialize and put the proposed structure in practice. The proposed structure in brief is given below-

Five members would be on the core committee at the district level (one each from the institutions, non-institutional service, district office, social work colleges, Juvenile Welfare Board members/ child right activist). Two of them would be part of the divisional core committee (there are six divisions in the entire state of Maharashtra and each division has 7-8 districts under it). These would be exclusive of the divisional QICA&AC coordinators. Two from each of these core committees would form the state level core committee and such a structure would include the government officials. It had been proposed that the district core groups would meet once a month. The divisional core groups would meet once in three months. The state level group would meet once in six months.

It was also proposed that the network would also have program-focused groups for functional convenience. These groups would be composed of NGOs primarily.        

At present, it functions as a loose and informal group with a Core team comprised of 26-27 member organizations and few other organizations supporting its work through their contribution as and when needed.

In the state of Maharashtra , the core group works at two levels:

  1. City level i.e. Mumbai- the group meets once in a month to monitor its recent activities, discuss about the issues and concerns faced and decide upon the future course of action.
  2. State level- there are three groups serving whole of Maharashtra , one being Mumbai, the other Konkan and the last Western Maharashtra . These groups meet once in four months to discuss about the work in their own region and to provide future direction for the activities of the Network as a whole. These meetings provide a larger framework for discussing issues and taking important decisions with regard to the work of the Network.  

Similarly each state has there own groups and structures.  

QIC&AC has a Resource Organization (RO), presently served by SAATHI. It accepted the role when offered and proposed by CRY. The role of RO is to coordinate the overall activities of the Network; provide administrative and other kinds of support required by it; integrate its own learning and experience acquired from the field with the work and activities carried upon by QIC&AC, provide space for its operation etc.

  • Supporting the coordinating team:
    • The RO had been involved in discussions on issues and strategies with the coordinators, state as well as regional level, guiding the team in moving ahead on several issues and providing moral support during crisis situations.
  • Administrative support
    • The RO had been providing administrative support, accounts support, provided office space, space for documentation, meetings and training.
    • The staff of SAATHI was also proactively involved in discussions on advocacy issues and processes, small successes in the field and took interest in the proceedings of the campaign.
    • The RO had also been making attempts to raise funds for the process, especially for the study on observation homes in the state of Maharashtra .
  • Alignment with the campaign
    • The programs within SAATHI had been making an attempt to review their intervention processes and scale up their programs from grass root interventions to policy level changes.
    • The RO has been experimenting on innovative strategies to be demonstrated as best practices in interventions in institutional care.

The role of the RO might be shifted to some other organization in the core group in a year or so.

Three full time paid professionals for the post of Divisional Coordinators have also been employed by the Network to take care of its day-to-day and administrative work.  

Some of the work done by the Network:

  • Issue based direct intervention programs in Mumbai, Thane, Aurangabad , Pune and Amravati- it included consortium building, deinstitutionalization, after care and rehabilitation work, staff training and capacity building and resource & volunteer mobilization.
    • Deinstitutionalization-
      • Snehabandhan program- an attempt to encourage foster parenting and foster homes.
      • Organized a Diwali program for placement of orphan children with different families.
      • Perspective building on the concept of deinstitutionalization.
  • Children’s participation-
    • Hamari Awaz Suno- this was an attempt and effort initiated to involve and encourage participation from the children in the form of a wall magazine for them. Towards achieving this end, various competitions like- poetry, essay writing, poster making etc. had been organized. The selected children had been called for a two-day workshop to plan, design and finalise the wall magazine. A children’s committee had been formed with 12 members, each representing a district in Maharashtra . The children’s committee took the onus and responsibility for finalizing and printing the magazine and later for organizing its launch.
  • Research study
    • After care and rehabilitation- a study on the topic had been conducted in Mumbai with the help of an NGO called Saheli and students of Nirmala Niketan. The study revealed that almost all institutions required additional support for education, vocational training and rehabilitation for children from 16-18 years and for those who leave the institution after attaining the age of 18 years. The study also included community resource mapping to support rehabilitation of young men in institutions.


Majority of the decisions are taken collectively by all the member organizations during their regular meetings. The process of decision making adopted is democratic and participatory in nature. Discussions, talks and debates precede any kind of decision making. All the member organizations are provided with an equal space to voice out their opinions and ideas. Final decisions are taken on a unanimous basis with agreement and approval from all to the maximum extent possible. Conflicts (which are a rare phenomenon as per Mr. Mansoor Qadri from SAATHI) get resolved either by way of majority or by adopting a middle path approach. In emergency or crisis situation, the RO in consultation with 4-5 other members of the core group can take decisions on behalf of the entire group.    


CRY is the main and only funding partner of QIC&AC. Almost 85% of the funds comes from it. The rest come from other sources through program specific fund raising. Lack of funds had many a times hindered the activities of the network and intervention work in few areas had to be closed. But, still the spirit to work towards the cause had never been lost by the members of the group.  

Strong points of QIC&AC

  • Well integrated and a dedicated core group- all the member organizations forming the core group work hard to achieve the goals of the network. They all are committed towards the cause and issue raised and backed by the network as a whole and 
  • Clarity in the goals to be achieved by the Network body. The vision & mission statements, goals and objectives to be achieved have been laid down in a very comprehensive, simple and clear form, which paves way for effective and smoothing functioning of the network.
  • Efficient planning and management system- the body plans for the tasks to be undertaken by it on a regular basis (quarterly, bi-yearly, yearly or for more than a year). Most of the times, plans are laid down keeping in mind the fallouts, areas of non-achievement and hurdles faced in the past. A proposal for the year 2005-2006 had been drafted, which serve as a guide in its working. It lays down the plans and programs with the expected outcomes in a summary as well as detailed manner. Efforts to improve upon the execution of tasks and activities, monitoring and evaluation of the work done are undertaken on a regular basis. is also undertaken regularly
  • Fully documented work- all the plans and documents including minutes of almost all the meeting held have been well maintained. All the work done and activities undertaken have been documented. A detailed budget for the year 2005-2006 had also been worked out. 

Advantages of working in the Network:

  • Build and act as a collective to exert pressure on different stakeholders involved in the issue like- government, institutions etc. QIC&AC also represented itself in different forums and networks on child rights like- World Social Forum.
  • Increased credibility- the group comprising of a sufficiently large number of like minded organizations and individuals in due course of time and because of its work and efforts has gained a lot of credibility for itself, which further improves and enhances its positioning in the sector. The network has managed to build credibility and a good rapport with the district level state bodies.
  • The member organizations through sharing of information, resources and ideas; building of contacts and networks, have been able to grow and expand in their own field and work as well.

Problems, issues and concerns faced by the Network are -

  • Parallel processes: Advocating for setting up of CWCs and JJBs- there are too many parallel processes in the entire state with several actors involved in the process. This creates problem in a concentrated effort on the issue.
  • Bureaucratic delays and resistance from institutions at the level of direct intervention with them for ensuring desirable standards and for demonstrating models. The former included change of Commissioner and the Secretary for the Department of Women and Child Development within a year; state elections; winter session of the legislature etc.
  • Policy of the government- the government mindset towards increasing institutionalization, nexus between the officials and institutions and massive corruption had been some of the major challenges.
  • Sustaining financial sustainability- lack of financial and human resources for supporting the process at the district levels.
  • Sustaining the enthusiasm of the organizations associated with the campaign has been one of the major challenges.
  • The process of demonstrating quality care in institutions was difficult, time consuming and heavily depended on the cooperation from the institutions.

A network does not work in isolation. At times, it has to work in collaboration with other network groups. QIC&AC has also worked in collaboration with other networking bodies like Campaign Against Child Labour (CACL), Campaign Against Child Trafficking (CACT), India Alliance for Child Rights and Habitat International Coalition-Housing and Land Rights Network. A meeting had been organized in the year 2003 with all the above mentioned Networks. The meeting was in response to the need felt to join hands to ensure that the issues and concerns of children get prominently reflected in the process of the World Social Forum, that child rights are not ignored or subsumed with other concerns and that the conception of ‘Another World’ is indeed child centered, and that children too have a role in defining and determining ‘Another World for Children’. 


Forum Against Child Sexual Abuse Exploitation (FACSE) is an unregistered body of organizations, professionals and individuals concerned about and working on the issue of child sexual exploitation.  


FACSE evolved from a four day Maharashtra state level meeting held in Mumbai in 1995, on the issue of child prostitution and children of prostitutes. In-depth discussion led to the decision, to create a broad based forum working towards raising awareness about chills sexual exploitation as it occurs within the family, neighbouhood, community and society at large.

FACSE was thus initiated in 1996, with the following objectives:

·        To understand the prevailing attitudes among adults and children on sexuality and child sexual abuse.

·        To work towards strengthening positive attitudes.

·        To facilitate Indian Research on child sexual abuse, the result of which can be continuously inculcated into the action plan.\

·        To create a legal database as it exists today, in letters, and in practice, Sections in the codes and acts.

·        To create a network of legal experts and volunteers in the legal arena

·        To disseminate information to children and adults, parents, police, doctors, social workers, teachers etc.

·        To facilitate public discussion and debate to reach a consensus and make changes in the law through public opinion.

·        To bring changes in the law on child sexual abuse to protect the child.

Area of work  

  • Direct intervention- it includes handling of cases related to sexual exploitation of children. These cases generally require immediate intervention with regard to police enquiry, medical help, court proceedings etc. The Network gets information about such cases through various sources like- newspaper articles; reference given by CWC, social workers,  psychologists, doctors etc. in touch with the Network or its members.
  • Awareness building- the network also disseminates information in order to sensitize and build awareness among families, communities and public in general about the issues related to sexual exploitation of children. Certain cases are also brought up for public discussion and debate in order to give visibility to the case for its early redressal.
  • Training and sensitization of lawyers, judges etc. who handle such cases and have the power of interpreting the law in favour of either the accused or the victim.
  • Advocacy towards bringing policy changes- there is no law or policy to deal with cases related to sexual exploitation of children.  
  • Activities with children and women in order to empower them and improve their confidence level, which would help them in raising their voices against any kind of exploitative of situation.


Family Service Centre (FSC) is the convenor of the network presently. It operates as a loosely structured and an unregistered network body and does not have a formal structure of its own. The parent body of the network (core group) is responsible for maintaining accounts and handling other work administrative nature. The role and duty of the convenor is to facilitate the various processes, like arranging for meetings, discussions, organizing events and programmes, documenting the work, fund raising etc. The post for the convenor gets filled on a rotation basis by one of the core group members. The meetings for the core group take place once in a month.  


The members in the core group have the responsibility to generate funds through external sources by approaching various funding organizations, writing proposals to them, following up and so on. The member organizations also make efforts to raise donations and small funds for a particular programme or event to be organized.   


The decision-making process followed in the meetings of the network is participatory and democratic in nature. In situation of conflict, issues are resolved by employing methods like majority, subjugation or consensus etc.  

Various reasons, like declining interest and motivation of network members, resource constraints etc. have brought about a slow down in the activities and work of FACSE. It is not working very actively in the field towards the issues and concerns raised by it.     

Analysis and Conclusion  

For effective, smooth and successful functioning of a Network, clarity with regard to its purpose and goals is very important. All the member organizations should be (to the maximum possible extent) in sync and agreement with the goals and objectives. It has been seen that all the members initially with the Network might not take part in its activities and withdraw from it either on a temporary or permanent basis. Such instances are natural to happen and therefore a core group for carrying on the activities of the network should be formed as soon as possible. This group should comprise of like minded members, dedicated and willing to work towards the cause taken up by it. It is always advisable to keep the other members informed about the proceedings and happenings in the Network in order to arouse their interest and encourage them to participate in their own capacities. In cases where organizations can not attend all the meetings due to resource constraint or some other problems, adequate space must be provided to them for their participation. They might be asked to organize and take part in one of the programs arranged by the network if not the entire arena of activities. In short, contribution and support of an organization should not be ignored if it

Distribution of roles and responsibilities among the members should be based on specifications      

Trust forms the core and basis of any networking body. Benefits of networks include mutual learning; enhanced legitimacy and status for the members; economic power; and an enhanced ability to manage uncertainty. The work of nonprofits is even more conducive to network forms of organization because the issues taken up and solved by these organizations are large and complex, which can't be addressed by any single entity. Furthermore, nonprofits seek to create social value, not just organizational value; have dispersed governance structures; rely upon tacit knowledge and expertise; have difficulty measuring performance; and rely heavily on trust and relationships to accomplish their work.

Follow up, monitoring and evaluation of the work undertaken by the network is very important as it provides the avenues to identify mistakes and deviations from the plans, so that corrective action (by employing forecasting and other techniques) can be taken and implemented in time to avoid any kind of

Participation of all the members and valuing contribution from each of them is very important to maintain the integrity and coordination in the network. Keeping up the interest and motivation level of its members had been an uphill task in both the networks studied above.

Financial sustainability of the network is also very crucial. The network body should strive to have a permanent source of funding for the network because dependence on external and temporary funding sources hampers the progress of work of the body as a whole.