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Hawkers and street vendors are part and parcel of urban life in India. Mostly illegal, their presence is a significant factor in the growing congestion along our cities roads - even if they do make shopping more convenient for some of us. Tackling the problem is complicated - the issue is highly politicised. Below is the growing resource database on Hawkers/Street Vendors issues that Karmayog has built up.
This section contains the following:
  - details of a new group being formed 
  - rules, policies, procedures, research papers, etc.
  - views and discussions
  - interesting or significant work by others
- MCGM - NGO Council MOU 
- Guiding Principles 
- BMC - NGO - Citizens meeting

Supreme Court's Order on 12-2-2007

Viewpoints of citizens / organisations received by NGO Council for discussing with BMC 



21 Apr 07 BMC Order - Action Against Seized Items From Unauthorised Hawkers 
2 June 06 Hawkers – new points in the recommendations
1 June 06 Gist of Supreme Court Order
27 May 06 Gist of the recommendations
26 May 06 Hawkers - who loses, who gains
18 May 06 Checklist for Roads / Areas declared as Hawking Zones
18 May 06 Locations and methods of selling goods
16 May 06 A solution based approach for providing alternatives to hawkers
14 May 06 Responses to the City Region Reports of the 3 member committees on hawkers
14 May 06 Responses to the Western Region Reports of the 3 member committees on hawkers
14 May 06 Responses to the Eastern Region Reports of the 3 member committees on hawkers
2 May 06 Broad draft recommendations and their basis
5 June 06 Types of goods
23 Apr 06 Tabulation of Suggestions vis-a-vis Supreme Court Guidelines
19 Apr 06 Next steps
18 Apr 06 Transcript of 14 April meeting with BMC
16 Apr 06 4 concerns
14 Apr 06 BMC - meeting regarding hawking zones -- Fri, 3:30 pm
13 Apr 06 The assumptions
13 Apr 06 Some questions to ponder
12 Apr 06 Doability aspects
25 Mar 06 Supreme Court, BMC, CitiSpace
20 Mar 06 Supreme Court Order 

Supreme Court Orders       

Supreme Court Appeal no. 4156-4157/2002 of Maharashtra Ekta Hawkers Union (MEHU) Vs. MCGM

- Supreme Court's Order on 12-2-2007 
- BMC Affidavit dt 17 June 2006
- Supreme Court's Order on 20-3-2006
- Supreme Court's Order on 27-9-2005
- Supreme Court's Order on   1-4-2005
- Supreme Court's Order on  30-7-2004
   - Response to Supreme Court order dt 30-7-2004
- Supreme Court's Order on 9-12- 2003    
   - Response to Supreme Court order dt 9-12-2003
- Supreme Court's Order on 10-07-1985 (doc)  
- List Of 187 Roads declared as Hawking Zones
- hawking zones - 9 more roads
- List of approved commodities for Hawkers Licence
Using handcarts and vending of costly items by hawkers are prohibited (BMC Patrika, April 2005)

Three Member Hawking Zone Committee

  City  -  Zone I & Zone II
        - Chairman (City) Reports dated 20.1.2005; 29.3.2005; and 26.7.2005 
        Proposed finalized hawking zone roads of city dt. 26 July 05 
            Responses to the City Region Report - 14 May 06

  Western Region Zones III & Zones IV 
     - Final Report dt. 14th March 2006 (pdf)
     - Progress Report of Three Member Hawking Zone Committee (Western Region) dt. 23-01-2006 (pdf)
            Responses to the Western Region Report - 14 May 06
  Eastern Region Suburbs V & VI 
 - Roads in eastern suburbs declared as hawking zones by MCGM dt. 23 Jan 06 (pdf)    
  - Report for declaring Hawking Zones 
     -  L  ward (pdf)
     -  M (E) ward (pdf)
     -  M (W) ward (pdf)
     -  N ward (pdf)
     -  S ward (pdf)
     -  T ward (pdf)
            Responses to the Eastern Region Report - 14 May 06

- Delhi High Court decision on Writ Petition 2334-36/2005 & CMS 1715, 3447, 3665/05 Dharam Singh & Ors. Vs. Municipal Corporation of Delhi & Ors dt Oct. 7, 05 
- Application by Urban Street Vendors Lok Seva Kendra for intervention and proposed modifications and amendments
- Affidavit dt. 17 Nov 2000 by Bhaskar S Gholap, BMC on Writ Petition no. 2044 of 2000 by High Court of Mumbai (pdf)  
    - Responses to Affidavit of Bhaskar Gholap, License Inspector, BMC – 17th Nov 2000 – to the High Court
- BMC: Number of licensed hawkers u/s 313(A)(B) upto 31 Dec 2005  

Must Read:  

 National Policy on Urban Street Vendors as on 21/1/ 2004 (Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation)  
     - Responses to the National Policy on Urban Street
  - BMC's comments to Mantralaya on final policy dt. 12 Sept 2005 (pdf) 
  - BMC's comments to Mantralaya on draft policy dt. 10 Oct 2003 (pdf) 

- Census Survey of Hawkers on BMC Lands by YUVA in March 1998  (pdf) 


 - Census Survey on Hawkers in Mumbai: A, B, C, E, L, M(E), M(W), N, S & T wards - TISS, Jan 1998  


- Round table on Street Vendors by ILO/SNDT/SEWA/EFI 18 Nov 2000 (pdf, jpg)

YUVA - Nallasopara 
  Integration of street vendors in the City development plan, Feb 05
    - Project Review - Presentation on Integration of street vendors in the City development plan of Nallasopara (pdf)
     - Consultation Process - issue identification and analysis (pdf)
     - Street wise Consultation Process - issue identification and analysis 1 (pdf)
     - Street wise Consultation Process - issue identification and analysis 2 (pdf)


- A Study on Street Vending in Seven Cities by Prof. Sharit K. Bhowmik for NASVI (2001)  
- Interview: With a hawker by Arbind Singh - NASVI Co-ordinator   

BMC-NGO Council transcript of 14 April meeting


Policies for hawkers / hawking in other countries: 


 - Handbook proposing side walk vending program - Los Angeles, USA (pdf) 
 - Recommendations for Improving the Regulations on Street Vending in New York City (pdf) 
 - Research Paper on Street Vendors, Modernity and Postmodernity: Conflict and Compromise in the Global Economy


 - Re-evaluating Street Vendors in Asian Cities and Asian Urbanism Sept 2005 (by Atsushi Deguchi, Dept. of Architecture and Urban Design , Japan ) (pdf)
 - Street Vendors in Asia Jun 2005 (A Research paper by Sharit K Bhowmik  in the Economic and Political Weekly)  (pdf) 
 - Focus on Street Vendors in Asia (from
 - Women Street Vendors, Africa and Asia (A SEEDS pamphlet supported by PopulationCouncil) (pdf)  
 - Hong Kong: Policy for Hawker Control (File not found) 
 - A Comparison of Legal Status of Street Vendors in 10 Asian Countries (from


 - Report of National Street Vendors’ Workshop, Johannesburg, South Africa (organised by ILO and StreetNet) Nov 2003
 - Street Traders in South Africa (A research paper published in the International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 2000)


 - Women and men in the informal economy a statistical picture, International Labour Organisation, 2002 (pdf)
 - Accommodating the urban informal sector in the public policy process (Open Society Institute 2003-04) (pdf) 


Articles / Views / Papers:     

Issues at hand:   

- Hawkers, residents to spruce up park (Indian Express June 2006)
- It is about time civic bodies make the hawker issue a part of their master plan, says Yogesh Sadhwani

- Vendors Everywhere but Invisible an article by Soma Basu (Indian Press Service, May 2006)

- Govt’s sop opera plays on, now policy for farmers, street vendors, fishermen (Indian Express, Jan 2004)
- Legal Provisions on hawking in India (Summary)
- Supreme Court decisions on Delhi's Street Vendor dt. 1989 & 1992 (Article by NASVI coordinator)
- SC rejects hawkers' plea on size of stalls as on 30/11/05, TOI  
- Report of National Workshop on the Strategic Approach to Job Creation in the Urban  Informal Sector in India
- Synopsis of Newspaper Articles on Street Vendors (from CED Doc. Centre)
- Perceptions of various stakeholders about the city and hawkers (Renana Jhabvala)
- A raw deal? (Sharit K. Bhowmik - coordinator of the study initiated by NASVI on hawkers)
- Don't see hawkers as a menace (Times of India Dec. 2001)
- Perception of Customers regarding hawkers (NASVI)
- Street Vendors: Exploitation by the State (by Shailly Arora & Aoneha Tagore, CCS)
- Livelihoods : the numbers tell, (Safia Sircar, India Together Mar 2004)
- Emerging issues regarding hawkers (from CED Doc. Centre)
- Problems related to hawking in India (Seminar Special Issue on Street Vendors – 2000)
- Livelihood & employment issues of urban informal sector (from CED Doc. Centre)
- Problems faced by Hawkers (from CED Doc. Centre)
- Legality of Street Vendors
- The Politics of Urban Space
- Organizing Street Vendors
- Proposed hawking zones in D ward (pdf)  
- Survey of hawkers in D ward (hawking and non-hawking zone) (pdf) 

- BMCidentifies five open plots for civic malls (DNA, Aug 2007)

Scenario in Indian cities 


- Hawkers, Demolition Raids and a New Regime of Consumption
- Now, hawkers to get licence to rove 

- Mumbai to have 8,000 more hawkers soon, Oct 2003
- Mumbai has three lakh hawkers DNA, Oct 2005 
- Hawkers: Now, choose your own friendly neighbourhood panwallah (DNA Feb.2006)
- Hawkers stand their ground at Bandra (DNA, Feb.200")
- Legality of Street Vending, TOI article
- Citizens to decide Hawking Zones in Mumbai, TOI article
- Synopsis of important Supreme court orders and articles regarding solutions to the issues related to hawking (from CED Doc. Centre)
- Hawkers' woes find voice in print, Indian Express Jan 1998
- Government message to Mumbai:Stop demolition and punishment, TOI Dec 2001
- What's Mumbai without its hawkers?, The Hindu Apr 2002
- Move on hawking zones slammed (BMC's move on hawking zone ruffles feathers of civic activists), TOI Oct 2003
- Targeting hawkers, Frontline, Madras Feb 2002 
-  Hawkers are not a 'nuisance' - Bombay Hawkers Association's message
-  Hawkers are back at Andheri station, Mid-day Dec 2004
-  Mumbai 2020: Dream or nightmare?, Rediff news Jan 2005
- Menace of Hawkers in DADAR .Can the Citizens do Nothing? TOI  
- Hawking food zones has Mumbai on the boil, Yahoo news Dec 2003
- Mumbai: An overview of informal sector (NASVI)
- Hawkers' novel idea: a books-only zone, Mid Day May, 2005 
- Malad is Hawkers' Paradise (Navin Pandya, Society and You)  
- Flowers that are a thorny problem for hawkers, Mumbai Mirror Nov 2005  
- All civic markets are empty as hawkers here crowd streets, Mumbai Mirror Nov 2005
- RRT Rd hawkers evicted; say they will return, Mid Day Jan 2006
- Who decides Mumbai’s non-hawking zones?, Jun 2005

- Particulars of functions and duties of Enforcement Cell  
- Policy for grant of Tehbazari to street vendors 
- Hawkers And Rickshaw Pullers of Delhi pay Rs. 40 cr bribes monthly (Rashmi Sehgal, Info  Change News and Features) Jun 2005
- Hawkers can't occupy Jama Masjid area, TOI Jan 2006 
- Policy on Tehbzari, Delhi, The Hindu Sept 2002



- Grain Market responds to latest MC drive by chucking rotten vegetables at enforcement staff (Express News Service, Feb 2005) 

Measures to streamline street food vending suggested, The Hindu Feb 2004

Efforts of NGOs towards the cause 
- MANUSHI, Hawker Market model project in Delhi, Mar - 2003
- Memorandum submitted to the Lt.Governor, Delhi on behalf of street vendors, India  Together Oct 2001
- An Interview with Ela R. Bhatt, the ‘founder’ of the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) from Seminar Special Issue on Street Vendors, 2000
- Institutional finance for vendors mooted, The Hindu Business Line May 2001

Legal Matters
Legal Status of Street Vendors, (Rani Advani - Labour File) Nov 1998
-'Do Tokri Ki Jagah" (The Resolution moved in Parliament by Ela Bhatt), Labour File Nov1998
- Vendors, Police and Governance (Amod K.Kanth, from Seminar Special Issue on Street Vendors, 2000)

Case Studies
- Interview: With a hawker by Arbind Singh - NASVI Co-ordinator   
- Facts about street vendors (from Seminar Special Issue on Street Vendors, 2000)  


Policy Framework discussions by NGO Council: 
 - Various issues involved   

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It is one of the beautiful compensations of this life that no one can sincerely try to help another without helping himself. --Charles Dudley Warner