You and Your Family
Educate your children wife
and other family member in respect of natural and manmade disasters
and other crises. In case of your being unaware, take help of Civil
Defence and Home Guard organisation and other NGOs. Develop habit in
you and your children to spare 1% of you busy time to think about
Individual security and security interests.
Keep the phone numbers of
the local police station, police control rooms, fire stations, and
schools, colleges, TV station, All India Radio, ambulance services
and Chemists for emergency use.
Guide children to remain at
schools in emergency.
Prepare an emergency kit of
items and essentials in the house including essential documents and
Store food and water for
survival in case you had a pre-warning.
Any suspicious incidents
observed be reported to police on 103. Callers do not have to give
their identity on the phone. Information of immediate use be
conveyed to control rooms to help early relief.
Carry your identity card,
residential telephone number or address or personal card with you.
Have your blood group and any medical allergies recorded with you.
Check information in case
of disasters and crises from ward, civil Defence/Home Guard, and BMC,
TV and All India Radio Control room.
Learn to fight such
Support authorities and
Identify scooters, cars,
vehicles parked in society and identify vehicles which are unknown
and parked for long.
Organize societies and
muhalla committees to educate people.
Do not encourage rumors.
Do not blame any community
for any crises.
Do not encourage communal
hatred in such situations.
Place of Work
Your mode of travel by car,
bus, train and taxi be known to your people.
High rises buildings must
check their electric and water supplies and organise periodic mockup
drills for fire fighting and escape routes.
Drills for bomb blast,
threats be organised and practiced.
be examined and organised from selected rooftops of high rises.
Fire fighting equipment be
kept serviceable and periodic check is effected.
Office societies be
organised and prepared to coordinate such emergencies of fire
brigade, medical help and other assistance. Such people be nominated
and they should guide relief.
Everyone must know use of
fire extinguisher in emergency.
Security guards are trained
to coordinate in such crises.
Be concerned and develop
habit of surveillance when out of our house. Check your seat in
cinema hall, train, bus and air. Have you observed a bird, she
jumped around and looks in all directions before selecting a spot on
a tree for her security. Do we learn anything from this bird
Look for the objects,
baggage, at bus stand, railway stations, compartments, airport,
which is unclaimed.
Unknown vehicles parked at
airports, Railway Stations and bus stands have to be kept under
surveillance by common citizens, and this alertness may help
Bus, trains and airlines
passengers who notice any suspicious behavior of co-passengers, be
brought to the notice of officials,
Every passenger should
identify a friend or relations residence in case of requirement of
staying away in emergency. The family should know about such a plan.
Do not touch any suspicious
object. Report to concerned people.
Do not crowd the object.
Passengers should not
accept parcels from unknown persons in hurry while boarding train or
Dos and Donts
Chemical, Nuclear and Biological Warfare
Chemical Weapons :- Citizens can identify such attacks by
observing people who start coughing, vomiting or seizing.
Evacuate the area
immediately and dial disaster management control room for help.
If indoors, exit the
building rapidly as possible.
Once out side, if you
believe that you may have been exposed to toxic substance, discard
you inhibition to remove you clothes, remove your clothes
immediately, which may save your life.
Taking out your clothes can
remove 80 percent of the contamination hazards.
Look for a near by water
tap or fountain, pool or other source of water so that you can
quickly and thoroughly rinse any skin part that may have been
Fire brigades on arrival in
area may spray water on every one affected and decontaminate.
Medical attention shall be
needed and first aid to be given to seriously affected people.
Evacuate most seriously
If you happen to be in open
and out door, you may observe birds and small animals falling to the
ground due to poisonous gas. You must immediately move indoors and
create a physical barrier between you and toxic cloud. A building
protection is preferred, however, getting in side your car will also
Shut all doors and windows
of the house and put off fans and air conditioners.
Try to plug flow of air or
wind to you rooms.
Listens Radio, TV News and
Authority will notify you
when it is safe to come out.
Have a bath immediately on
entry to the house and keep your cloth in a plastic bag, it will
help remove any contamination that might have occurred before you
were able to get indoors. It may be done in period of less than a
minute or one minute.
You may like to keep gas,
Biological Weapons: Biological Weapons have been described as
"the poor mans atom bomb". These viruses could be spread
through water and food. Some of the suggested points for use of
common people are.
On hearing report of that,
biological agents have been released, stay indoors.
Shuts all windows and doors
and turn off fans and air conditioners.
A gas mask can provide an
excellent respiratory protection.
Put a physical barrier
between you and agent dissemination.
Reach for medical help.
Boil your drinking water.
Ascertain and check your
vegetable and food items.
To protect from heat and
flash, any light material or foliage cover will give reasonable
protection to human body.
Gamma radiation protection
requires a shallow or trench which is 4 to 5 feet deep people
remaining at the bottom of such shelter will be safe.
For blast and earth shock,
strong shelters have to be planned in societies and have to be
strong enough and these not to protrude above ground level.
Being in shelter/trenches
can prevent radioactive fallout. The requirement of protection is
similar to hear and flash. A chemical protective mask may be useful.
suggested DOs and DON'TS for prevention/Protection against NUCLEAR,
BILOGICAL And CHEMICAL weapons as under
/Identity basements in your residence where the whole family can
stay in for a fortnight.
case no basement available, then in the open space in front of
your house, construct bunkers as in conventional war (as some
protection is better than no protection)
the shelter with non-perishable foods and water to be replaced
regularly before getting unhygienic.
the toilet facilities in the basement/Shelter
ample candles and battery lights.
stocks flammables, if any.
battery operated miniature transistor /TV sets in the basement
with instructions/operational procedures being
broadcasted/telecasted at stipulated by CD authorities
black paper on window/door glass panels.
with community shelters in your locality in consultation with
open, immediately drop to ground and remain in lying position.
eyes and exposed skin areas by covering eyes and face with hand
ears by fingers or thumbs after covering eyes with palms to
prevent ear drum Rupture.
down after the initial shock wave. Wait for the winds to die
down and debris to stop falling.
blast wave does not arrive within fire seconds of the flash, you
were far enough from the ground Zero and initial, radiation
exposure will not exceed 150 reds.
out of the way of any windows or doors to avoid injury due to
in vehicle, on detection of flash, drive from the vehicle to a
face down, in prone position. Drive in the direction of the
flash to avoid the vehicle over turning on you due to blast.
down under cover until debris stop falling.
calm. Burn, injuries dazzle and concern over production exposure
may combine to create panic.
wind will generally end in one to two minutes after burns, cuts
band bruises are not different than conventional injuries.
Dazzle is temporary and vision should return in few seconds.
survived the blast, the chances of being exposed to lethal dose
of radiation is relatively small unless located in an early fall
some initial dis-orientation as the blast wave may blow down and
carry away many prominent and familiar features. Beware of
weakened structures and trees from collapsing.
out fires before they spread.
over cover. Cover the openings of shelters to prevent the entry
of fall out particles.
coming from contaminated area, follow simple decontamination
procedure like removal of clothing outdoors and having a bath
before entering safe areas.
not consume open food/drinks/water/beverages etc. lying under
the open sky.
not move out of shelters /basements unless instructed by
stir up dust or brush against things main moving in fallout
smoke, eat or drink in exposed area.
kneel, lie or sit on the ground
walk barefooted or in open slippers.
move out of your shelter without proper protection to breathing
passages at least during the first 24 hours after the blast.
use flour from gunny bags, foods wrapped in paper, water from
open pools/ lakes.
dust your ventilators indiscriminately.
permit contaminated persons in basements/shelters unless
permanent implementation of body hygiene measures such as
trimming of fingernails regularly and washing hands with soap
and water before eating or drinking.
active immunization as available.
all new vegetables in detergents before cooking or eating.
any case of sickness in the family/ neighborhood to health
authorities in destruction of infected stocks of food, crops,
your premises clean.
insecticides to keep vectors away.
ample food and water under cover and replace the same regularly
before getting spoiled.
mosquito nets/ repellents at night.
allow waste particularly food waste material to accumulate in or
around your premises.
not allow open pools/collection of water in surrounding area.
panic and stay calm.
consume stale food material.
calm and do not panic.
to the radio and follow official instructions. Inform your
neighbors especially the elderly and handicapped and assist
inside if at home or shelter in a building and close all doors
and windows. Seal all exterior openings and turn off the
ventilation, air conditioning and heating.
your mouth and nose, if in the open, with a wet cloth or a
shelter in the nearest building and remain inside until
otherwise instructed by the authorities.
not telephone as this overloads the system.
the orders of the Civil Defence, fire services, Police or other
only food stored inside a building such as tinned food and
preserved one. Drink only from bottles or cartons. Follow the
instructions on the use of tap water.
you are in a car, turn off the ventilation and close the
windows. Listen to the radio and take shelter in the nearest
building. Follow the instructions of the authorities.
not consume open food/drinks/water beverages etc. lying under
the open sky.
not move out of shelters/ basement unless instructed by
stir up dust or brush against things when moving in contaminated
smoke, eat or drink in exposed areas.
kneel, lie or sit on the ground.
walk barefooted or in open slippers.
move out of your shelter without proper protection to breathing
permit contaminated persons in basements/shelter unless
decontaminated for the chemical vapors.
of Air raid:
Warning of an imminent raid enables the public to be prepared for an
air attack and to take air shelter. Aircraft will be spotted with
the help of Radars in time when they are miles away from the target.
The control centre will immediately pass on the warning to other
concerned and siren will be sounded.
for general public after siren will be sounded, before Air raid
a) Taking cover in the open
hearing the warning or the sound of enemy bombers, lie flat on the
ground with your face downward, keep your chest slightly above the
ground and rest on your elbows. Plug your ears with cotton wool and
if this is not available, plug them with the corners of your dhoti,
sari or turban etc. Place a rolled-up handkerchief or a corner of
your dhoti etc. between your teeth to keep the mouth open and not to
be affected by the earth shock which may cut you tongue.
splinters and debris fly outward and upward and therefore lie flat
on the ground. You are safer there.
When very near a building
archways, doorways are good protection. Go and stand near them. Do
not lean directly against a wall.
Inside a building
is better to be near an inside than an outside wall.
being in the direct line of a door or windows.
the extreme danger of flying glass. The safest part of the house
will be away from the windows, etc. and to be in the angle of a
When in a train
off the lights and crawl under the seats. Do not look out of the
When in a tram or bus
it. Leave it. Go out and act as if you were in the open.
When in your own motor car
your car on the left hand, closest to the edge of the road.
the car unlocked. Keep the switch key in its place so that if you
are a casualty, the car can be driven by others.
the window open.
out of the car and act as if you were out in the open.
When at a cinema
seated and keep calm. You are safer there than anywhere else.
When in a bullock cart or Tonga etc.
the animals and tie them to the nearest tree or strong pole where
they will not obstruct traffic. Go out and act as if in the open.
Taking cover in the open
hearing the warning or the sound of enemy bombers do not run to
cover if there is no time.
look up during an air raid.
Use water in the cisterns and tank if your supply is cut off.
Economise in the use of water, as it will be needed for fire
If mains or meter boards are damaged, report it to the warden. If
the electric installation in your house is damaged, send for an
If the waste disposal system is damaged, use disinfectants freely
and burn or bury your rubbish. If your house is slightly damaged,
try to repair it. In case it is destroyed go to the house of a
friend or to a relief centre. Ask the police or warden where these
to the injured:
In case of slight injury, go to the First Aid Post for treatment. In
case of severe injury await the help of a First Aid party. Keep the
patient warm, reassure him, enable him to breathe easily by removing
any dust or grit from his nose and mouth. Control bleeding, relieve
pain, support fractured limbs by improvised splints and give
Look round the area for fires. With the help of sand, water and
stirrup pumps tackle the fires in their initial stages. If it gets
out of control, call your neighbor and inform the warden. If you are
lucky, see if you can help others. While dealing with an incendiary
bomb, protect your eyes and make sure not to direct a jet of water
on the bomb.
If the room is on fire, close all doors and windows. It will help
prevent spreading of fire. While entering it, crawl along the floor
and keep as close to the floor as possible. Keep close to the wall.
If someone's clothes catch fire, wrap him up in a rug or blanket and
roll him on the ground.
If you are caught within a house on fire, escape through the windows
by using a rope or bed sheets after having tied one end to some
strong point beside the house. Call for help from an opening if
unable to escape through the window.
Do not go alone into a building on fire if you can do so in the
company of another.
Exercise great care while removing debris from the neighborhood of a
casualty. Do not pull timber out of the wreckage because you may
cause further collapse. Do not crawl over the debris unless
absolutely unavoidable. Do not touch loose electric wiring. Protect
the casualty from falling debris by providing tarpaulin or other
RESCUE IN AN AIR-RAID
proper reconnaissance before starting rescue work.
as near as possible to the wall when on damaged stairs.
great care while removing debris from the vicinity of the casualty.
the casualty from falling debris and dust with the help of iron
sheets, tarpaulins, etc.
the nose and mouth of the casualty from dust and grit to case his
the patient and get him taken home to bed, if the injury is not
all clothing and keep the patient lying down and warm.
artificial respiration, if needed, control bleeding, if any, as far
as possible, and relieve pain of the casualty by supporting
fractures by improvised splints.
immediately the nearest First Aid Post for proper medical attendance
for the casualty.
pull timber out of the wreckage indiscriminately or you may cause
touch loose electric wiring.
crawl over the debris or disturb part of the damaged structure
unless you are compelled to do so by circumstances.
Guide to Prepare Community For Surviving Earthquake In Urban Areas
Before the Earthquake
is essential that we are prepared for a earthquake. Seismic experts
do not rule out the possibility of an earthquake anywhere in
including Mumbai. We don't know when this will happen.
an earthquake occurs, your first warning may be a shaking sensation
if you are in a building. It may also be followed with a sudden
noise or roar. You may find yourself completely topsy-turvy. It may
be a scary situation! It may last a few seconds or go on for a few
minutes. Breaking glass, and things falling around could hurt you.
Be prepared for aftershocks.
can't prevent an earthquake. But we can:
prepared by injury.
prepared to minimize damage to your home.
prepared to manage our survival afterwards for at least 72 hours
Your family preparedness for such a situation is a must. You must prepare
and practice what to do during and after an earthquake.
needs in such a situation. Rite down and exercise your safety plan.
safe and dangerous places in your home.
Safe: -Under heavy tables
or desks, inside corridor, corners of rooms or archways.]
Near window or mirrors, under any objects that can fall, the
kitchen-where the stove, refrigerator or contents of cupboards may
move violently, doorways, because the shaking may slam the door on
you. Practice taking cover.
Train members of
your family to use fire extinguish.
Plan and practice
Talk to your
children about the earthquake: what to do if they are at home, at
school, if the quake separates your family.
an alternative family place if your present area is out of bound.
Each family member should carry the contact phone number and
Remind your family
to relay on emergency authorities for guidance. Broadcast reports on
radio and television will have instructions.
Make sure each
member of your family knows how to shut off the utilities-gas,
electricity and water. (Don't shut off the gas unless there is a
leak or a fire. If the gas is turned off, don't turn it on
again-that must be done by a qualified technician.)
Your plan should
include a list of where emergency supplies and equipment are stored.
your emergency plan with neighbors.
During the Earthquake
Preparations for an earthquake include knowing
what to do while it is happening.
By learning and practicing what you should try to do, you
will be more able to remain calm enough to protect yourself and help
others. Know what to do,
wherever you are. In
summary, you should take cover and stay there.
inside your home, stay there. Get
out of the kitchen safer places are inside hall, in corners, in
archways. Take cover
under a heavy table, desk or any solid furniture that you can get
under and hold onto. Protect
your head and face. Doors
may slam on you figures if you are in a doorway.
Avoid areas near windows.
If you are
in a yard outside your home, stay there and get clear of buildings
and wires that could fall on you.
outside where you may be hit by falling debris - pavements next to
tall buildings are particularly dangerous.
lifts - if you are in a lift when an earthquake happens, press all
floors buttons and get out when you can.
High - rise residents will hear fire alarms go off and
electricity may fail.
If you are
in a vehicle, pull over to the sight (leave the road clear) away
from bridges, over bridges and buildings.
Stay in your vehicle.
If you are
in a crowed public place, take cover and watch that you don't get
trampled. In shopping
centers, take cover in the nearest store and keep away form windows,
neon signs and display shelves of heavy objects.
protected place until the shacking stops.
Anticipate after shocks - they may occur after the first
remain calm and help others.
After the earthquake
Preparation of an earthquake also
include knowing what to do and not do, after the shaking stops-when
there is a danger from aftershocks, fire, falling building
materials, debris, etc. Remain calm. You may have to take charge of
others. Take care of life threatening situations first. Remember,
you may be on your own for 72 hours or more.
home for structural damage and other hazards.
yourself and others nearby for injuries-administer first aid quickly
If you are
evacuating, locate and take your pack of emergency supplies with
torch to check utilities and not shut them off unless damaged.
Leaking gas will smell. Don't light matches or turn on light
switches-until you are sure there are no gas leaks or flammable
sturdy shoes, if there's debris, particularly broken glass.
neighbor's after looking your own family. Your first help after and
earthquake usually will come from family and friends.
flush toilets if you suspects nearby sewer lines are broken.
cleanup any spilled hazardous material.
your home against intruders.
your battery-power radio (or car radio) and listen for broadcast
your telephone, expect it an extreme emergency.
your vehicle, expect in an extreme emergency.
least ten meters from downed power lines.
Avoid sea line because of the threat of large
over of building after construction
shall hand over at least the following documents:
Property register card with CTS plan.
Set of approved/ completion plans.
Occupation permission/building completion certificate.
Drainage completion certificate along with completion plan of house
Structural plans as executed at site with detail of design and the
stability certificate issued by the structural engineer.
Plan of electrical layout.
Plan of pumping layout.
Layout of fire fighting installations.
Architect's certificate for carpet area/built up area of each flat.
NA permission issued by the collector.
Exemption order issued by
(UL C&R) Act 1976.
List of important agencies involved, their names, address, telephone
numbers etc. viz.:
Licensed plumber/plumbing contractor
Contractor for civil work
~ A building, however sound it may be, needs regular maintenance to
keep it in healthy condition. However, awareness in this respect is
lacking in the occupants, which is evident from the condition of
buildings in Mumbai. Occupants who spend liberally for decoration of
their premises do not show the ame spirit as and when they are asked
to contribute towards repairs and maintenance of their buildings. It
is important to carry out timely maintenance works to prevent
deterioration of the buildings.
Get the building inspected by a qualified engineer after 10 years of
its occupation and at an interval of 5 years thereafter for
structural assessment and carry out the works suggested by him.
Attend to all the leakages promptly.
Keep all the sanitary pipes, water pipes and its fittings in good
condition by replacing the broken parts promptly.
Check terrace waterproofing before every monsoon and attend to the
repairs. Renewal of waterproofing layer, whenever necessary, shall
be undertaken to prevent leakage from terrace.
Any cracks, plaster peeling off, exposed reinforcement etc. shall be
immediately brought to notice of structural Engineer.
Render two coats of waterproof cement paint for external face of the
building at regular intervals.
Cement paint every 3 years (b) Acrylic paint every 5 years
Preventive maintenance of lifts shall be done by giving service
contracts to the lift companies. Arrange operation of lifts by
Keep the water pump in working condition. Yearly contract for
maintenance is advisable.
Fire fighting installation shall be maintained through qualified
Keep the terrace clean especially during monsoon.
DO NOT allow any unauthorised additions/ alterations thereby loading
the existing structure.
DO NOT allow any internal changes with- out consulting the
structural engineer and without obtaining prior approval of MCGM
DO NOT allow extension of toilets or lavatories over other rooms.
DO NOT permit internal works such as re- placement of flooring,
repairs of internal plastering, repairs to RCC members, renovation
of toilets or kitchen etc without consulting the professionals in
DO NOT allow gardening in any manner unless specifically designed.
Change of internal loading shall not be allowed.
Subsequent addition of lofts shall not be permitted.
alterations and repairs of building
are certain "Do's and Don'ts" for proper maintenance of
buildings. Every user of the building is responsible for proper
maintenance of the building and therefore he should be aware of
these "Do's and Don'ts.
The Society or Association of every building should have copies of
approved plans, structural plans, services plan (plumbing/
drainage/electrical/ A. C. ducting, etc.)
The Society should maintain copies of as built drawings, soil
investigation reports, material test results, concrete test results
as well as result of any other tests including that on the building
The Society should also have record of any subsequent modifications
as per actual site conditions from time to time.
The Society should formulate the policy for any kind of additions,
alterations and re- pairs to be carried out by members.
The Society should ensure that any additions or authorizations are
permitted only after scrutiny and approval of the structural
The Society members desirous to carrying out any additions,
alterations should take prior N.O.C. from Society by applying for 4/
the same with plan and Structural Stability Certificate from
Structural Engineer and not Interior Designers.
The Society should verify the same from their Structural Consultant/
Architect prior ...1 to giving the required N.O.C. The Society
should consider the views of all the affected members before giving
The Society should grant N.O.C. to the member for proposed additions
and alterations subject to permission from Municipal Corporation.
The Society should ask the member certain amount as Security Deposit
towards fulfillment of Terms & Conditions of N.O.C. and to
safeguard the property of other members and Society.
The Security Deposit should be released only after N.O.C. from
adjoining members on same floor as well as just below and just above
floors and N.O.C. from Society's Structural Consultant/ Architect.
The leakages from bathroom, W.C., kitchen and drainage, plumbing
systems and from terraces should be attended immediately. Generally
societies take action on external leakages and internal leakages
being the responsibility of members concerned, normally remain
unattended. Every Society should formulate the policy for immediate
repairs of internal leakages to save the building from further
damage. Growth of plants in drainage pipes should be re- moved
The building should be painted with good quality cement paint,
externally at every 4 to 5 years.
In case of cracks to R.C.C. ri1embers the building should be
repaired/restructured under the guidance and supervision of
Structural Audit of buildings is essential at the interval of around
every 10 years. The recommendations should be compulsorily
implemented by Society on priority basis.
Tampering of structural members i.e. columns, beams and slabs
and walls, load bearing walls, should not be allowed under any
circumstances. Even chiseling or cutting into structural members for
laying electric conduits or drainage pipes should not be allowed.
2. R.C.C. slabs
should not be loaded beyond for which it is designed. Shifting of
walls resulting in loading directly on slab with- out proper beam
below should not be allowed.
Shifting of toilets or creating new toilets on normal R.C.C. slab
should not be allowed.
Balconies should not be allowed to be converted into bathrooms &
kitchens. Even additional weight by way of planters storage with box
type grills should not be allowed on any cantilevered portion of
building such as balcony or chajja.
Change of the user from residential to commercial or godown should
not be allowed because generally the slab of residential premises is
not designed to 1'ake additional load of commercial or godown
Additional water storage tanks should not be allowed resting on
terrace slabs directly or without proper consultation from