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Pathways towards sustainable organic waste disposal ~  

Present Status ~ Garbage Collection & Disposal System ~

Significant percentage of Garbage resident communities generate, is picked up from house or establishment by the sweeper and dumped at nearby community bin (termination point of primary collection) for onward transportation to notified dumping ground (termination point of secondary collection). MCGM have been able to cover few areas where Garbage is picked up house-to-house and brought directly to dumping ground. In addition, some quantities of Garbage are brought to notified dumping ground through transfer station. 

Impact of Present Waste Disposal System ~

The community bins & dumping sites become eye sore, cause foul smell, become breeding places for harmful bacteria & attracts diseases carrying vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, birds, rats, dogs etc.  

The situation gets bad-to-worse when this garbage enters into water bodies during monsoon, reviving unpleasant memories of loss of life & moveable asset during recent deluge on 26th July. The prime concern arising out of present waste disposal system is its impact on community health & environment. No matter who owns the responsibility of garbage disposal, realty is that resident communities are the victim of their own apathy towards sustainable solution to the problem.  

The opportunity cost of using space in Mumbai for garbage dumping is very high. Apart from land being costly & finite resource, judicial activism on use of land near water bodies is compelling Municipal Administrators to move towards enforcement of waste segregation and encourage community initiative towards waste minimization & recycling at source of generation.   

MCGM initiatives ~

MCGM has made it mandatory for every household to segregate wet waste and dry waste with a view to facilitate efficient waste composting & recycling near to waste generation. MCGM has taken initiatives to encourage successfully operating garbage disposal system at source of generation.  

There are decentralizing small scale source disposal options for Segregated Organic Waste successfully operating but with limited presence. Such models have possibility of multiplication with public private partnership ~  

1)         Vermi-Composting  ~ Annexure: A  

2)         BARC Model ~ Nisergruna Biogas Plant  ~ Annexure: B  

3)         Excel Model ~ Organic Waste Converter (OWC) ~ Annexure: C  


1)      To offer decentralized solution for treatment of Segregated Organic Waste. 

2)      To minimize haulage of waste to long distance landfill site

3)      To  facilitate reduction of landfill space requirement  

4)      To promote stakeholders participation for Organic Waste Segregation, treatment and potential use of output for Greener & Healthier Mumbai   

Potential User Groups of decentralize disposal options:

1)         Community Cluster of minimum 1000 families in 200 meter radius with availability of open public area for curing of treated material.

            ~ Large Housing Complex

            ~ Building Cluster in lane

~ Institutional Campus

~ Markets

2)      Bulk waste generators generating minimum 500kg of Segregated Organic Waste per day with availability of open Public area for curing of treated material.  

~ Temples

~ Industrial Canteen

~ Clubs & Resorts

~ Hospitals

~ Slaughter House

~ Hotels  

Excel Model ~ Organic Waste Converter (OWC) ~ Annexure: C  

1.         Technical Details:

Model             Power  Segregated Organic Waste Capacity

OWC   60          4 HP              20kg per batch / 500kg per day per shift

OWC 130          8 HP              50kg per batch / 1000kg per day per shift

OWC 300      13.5 HP 120kg per batch / 3000kg per day per shift  

2.         Operating Details:

Large volumes of food waste from pre-cooking, leftover after meal are dumped in community bins, which is responsible for foul odour & health hazards. Organic Waste Converter homogenizes organic waste with appropriate additive & bio culture. The output from device is uniform coloured coarse powder in appearance and is without any bad smell. Thus treated material over come major cause of nuisance to resident community related to eye & nose sense and can be composted into good quality organic manure in 2 weeks of curing period.  

3.         Coverage & Segregated Organic Waste handling Capacities

Segregated Organic Waste kg.per day/shift       500kg              1000kg            3000kg

No. of families (unit of 5 persons)                                  1000                2000                6000

Organic Waste Generation assumed @ 100 gm per day per person  

4.         Infrastructure Resources required:

Organic Waste Converter                                             OWC60           OWC130         OWC300

Cabin Space for OWC                                     3M x 4M           3M x 4M         3M x 4M      

Open Space for Curing                                                 40              60        150    

5.         Operating cost:

Model:                                                                   OWC 60      OWC130          OWC300

Maximum Organic Waste load kg per day           500kg                 1000kg          3000kg        

Estimate of Coverage (no.of families)                  1000           2000                 6000    

Waste treatment per month                              15000kg               30000kg        90000kg

subject peak load capacity or OWC per day.

Minimum Billing Rs. per month                         30000                     60000             180000   

6.         Project Revenue Model Options ~

            Cost subsidy from MCGM to the extent of present waste disposal cost incurred by MCGM and authorization to Operating Agency to raise remainder of minimum monthly billing amount from community or bulk user group on pay & use basis. 

7.         Assumption:

1)         Land for Cabin & Curing Area, Civil Cost for Cabin with Power Connection to be provided by Municipal Authority on Nominal lease rent of Rs. 1 per annum

2)         The suitable mechanism for recovery of pre-determined monthly charges and site specific primary collection cost will be decided by Municipal Authority.

3)        Operating Agency will not be obliged to treat mixed waste received at the treatment facility.

4)         Average Organic Waste Generation by community @ 100gm per capita per day is estimated and family unit of five persons assumed. 

Organic Waste Converter plan suggested by Mr. Rishi Agrawal  

Existing successful operations

Five units are operational in Mumbai. All units are in private premise. The user categories are Multistory Apartment Bldg, Club Premise, Temple Premise , Corporate Office Canteen.  

Proposed areas where the plan can be rolled out.   

1.      Lokhandwala Complex

2.      Cluster of Hotels at Sahar International Airport adjoining area

3.      Cluster of Hotels along Juhu Beach

4.      Borivali Vegetable Market  

There is substantial waste being generated in Lokhandwala Complex and if an Organic Waste Converter (OWC) is set up here then a organic waste from this area would not enter the conventional waste stream ending up in Gorai or Deonar.  

Similarly in Hotels organic waste is generated in bulk, in a single source and available largely in a segregated form.  

Organisations like Lokhandwala Complex Environmental Action Group can play a role in neighbourhood mobilisation and also actively manage the OWC.  

What is required?

Stakeholders meeting: In the case of a housing complex like Lokhandwala Complex it will involve building-to-building meetings.  In the case of the Airport area it will involve meeting the Hotels.  

We need to ascertain from SWM Dept:

1.      The quantum of waste being generated

2.      Whether it is segregated with the organic/wet component being available separately.  

If the waste is segregated then we can directly talk in terms of processing the waste. If the waste is not segregated then we will have to undertake measures to ensure segregation.

Role of BMC

BMC will play a very critical role in this exercise by fundamentally accepting decentralized waste management and support entities, which take up decentralized waste management (DWM).  Various agencies of the BMC will then have to do their bit in forwarding DWM.  

1.BMC will have to 

   a) provide 3mt x 4mt cabin space with power connection for the Organic Waste Converter.

   b) permit curing of treated waste in nearby Public area.

   c) deliver segregated organic waste at OWC facility

2. BMC will have to agree to the rate to be paid to operating agency for treating organic waste in the decentralized manner.     


It is one of the beautiful compensations of this life that no one can sincerely try to help another without helping himself. --Charles Dudley Warner